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Transcription of this question: 4.(a)Define the following terms:(i)(ii)organizational culture (line 11)Organizational culture (also called “corporate culture”) refers to the factthat companies, like countries, have complex cultures that are marked bybeliefs, attitudes and values. The culture of an organization is alsoinfluenced by stories, traditions and management style.Candidates are not expected to word their definition exactly as above.Award [1 mark/ for a basic definition that conveys partial knowledge andunderstanding.Award [2 marks/ for a full, clear definition that conveys knowledge andunderstanding similar to the answer above.For only a relevant: example or application to the case study award[1 mark].matrix structure (line 91).[2 marks/[2 marks/A matrix structure refers to a form of organization where workers are inmultifunctional teams and may be working on diffelent projects withdifferent managers. The structure is usually represented by a table(the word hiatrix” means that shows vertical as well ashorizontal relationships.Candidates are not expected to word their definition exactly as above.Award [1 mark/ for a basic definition that conveys partial knowledge andunderstanding (for example just drawing a diagram of the structure).Award [2 marks/ for a full, clear definition that conveys knowledge andunderstanding similar to the answer above.For only a relevant: example or application to the case study award[1 mark].(b)Explain how the force field analysis (Appendix 2) helped the UWPheadquarters in Geneva decide on a change Of strategy in 2011.[3 marks/The candidate may wish to focus their response on an explanation of one of thefollowing areas:• identifying the problem/issuelists of pointsdriving / restraining forcesw eightsdecision-making criteria.The force field analysis model lists and weighs forces “for” and “against” achange of strategy in Loyka. Each point is allocated a number/coefficient(e.g. 3 or 5). Although there was an equal number of factors on each side(three), the totals showed that the three factors on the “for” side were strongerthan the three factors on the “against” side (10 compared to 8), so this modelhelped convince the UWP headquarters that a change of strategy was needed.If the candidate chooses to focus their explanation on any one key area and thatincludes reference to the case study, they can achieve the full range of marksjust as if they had covered all the points in a more general explanation.Accept any Other relevant explanation.Award [1 mark/ for each correct point, up to a maximum of [3 marks].(c)Explain why General Diane Pierce’s prior experience in social marketingcan help the UWP Mission to achieve its strategic and operationalobjectives in Loyka.Social marketing refers to the application of marketing principles, concepts andtechniques to projects that are not necessarily commercial but rather benefitcommunities. General Diane Pierce’s experience of social marketing inprevious UWP Missions means that she has been in projects where marketingactivities were used, in order to help local populations, for examplehumanitarian ventures or fundraising ventures. Now in Loyka she can use whatshe has learnt from that experience. One objective is “to improve the image of’the Olive Hats'”, which is a form of PR (public relations), quite comparable toa promotional campaign. The other objective is remotivate her troops”,which could be seen as a form of internal marketing and as an exercise ofinternal communication. The case study also shows that General Diane Pierceis familiar with market research methods such as surveys and focus groups: ina way, she considers the Loykese as customers of her organization.Accept any Other relevant explanation.Award [1—2 marks/ for a definition of social marketing and/or strategic andoperational objectives without any relevant reference to the case study.Award [3—4 marks/ for an explanation of social marketing and/or strategic andoperational objectives with explicit and relevant references to the case study.For [5 marks/ the explanation must have clear reference to General DianePierce’s two specific objectives.[5 marks/(d)Evaluate the possible ways to overcome conflict between externalstakeholders and the UWP Mission in Loyka.The case study refers to several conflicts between external stakeholders (suchas the local governor, local community) and the [JWP Mission in Loyka.These conflicts may be overcome in several ways:The UWP Mission in Loyka already supports the local economy; theprovisions for “the Olive Hats” are purchased locally (and Kos Palouk’sbusiness is a good example, as he sells local produce to the UWP Mission);Olive Hats” also spend their pay in the local economy, which generatesmore income for local businesses such as shops and restaurants. The UWPMission in Loyka could further strengthen its economic role, alleviating thecritiques of its political and military role.• Building the university or hospital will improve the image of “the OliveHats” (this is the strategic objective that General Diane Pierce was givenwhen she was appointed). This project is not only about social marketing(i_e_ using marketing techniques to obtain changes in people’s behaviour andattitudes, especially hostile external stakeholders), it also has a businessdimension, as the construction process and then the running of the newfacility would also have positive business impacts (direct job creation andneed for more supplies, for example furniture from local suppließ).The choice of university versus hospital is also relevant as each option leadsto stakeholder conflicts (for example many conservatives “would bestrongly opposed to Loykese women receiving care from foreign maledoctors”, as Kos Palouk explained). Specific operational measures wouldhave to be put in place (for example recruiting female doctors for thehospital) in order to avoid conflict.[8 marks/Accept any Other relevant evaluation.Candidates could use other examples from the case study (e.g. reference to thefact that “the Olive Hats” “also helped repair roads and bridges that had beendamaged during the civil war. As a result of these improvements ininfrastructure, local businesses in Beral were able to resume their tradeactivities to the same levels as before the civil war”). Candidates could refer todifferent methods of conflict resolution (such as conciliation and arbitration),adapting them from the internal environment (conflict within an organization)to the external environment (conflict with external stakeholders).This holistic question requires candidates to show their understanding ofstakeholder conflict to achieve some marks at the lower markbands, and todisplay evaluative skills to reach the higher markbands.Marks should be allocated according to the markbands on page 4.