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Transcription of this question: 4.VinnVinn is an American public limited company. It mass-produces jeans sold worldwide. Twelve yearsago, production was offshored to China and Turkey to reduce manufacturing costs. To benefit fromeconomies of scale, Vinn sells standardized regular-fit jeans. Vinn uses an identical marketing mixglobally.Despite the global popularity of American jeans, Vinn has experienced a significant fall in demanddue to:customer complaints about poor quality jeanseconomic recessions in Vinn’s main markets. However, economic forecasts expectimprovements within two years• increased global competition of mass-produced clothesanti-globalization pressure groups. For example, a local pressure group, “B-Local”, hascriticized Vinn’s undifferentiated advertising campaigns as inappropriate for all internationalmarkets and cultures.In addition, Vinn’s management is worried about labour costs in China rising faster than theUnited States (US). It also has communication problems with its offshored employees.Vinn’s management decided to re-shore back to the US and completely change its strategic focus.Recent market research has revealed a niche market: some customers in North America are willingto pay high prices for individually designed and produced jeans. To create a new competitiveadvantage, Vinn will aim for different market positioning by using highly skilled, creative fashiondesigners located in major American cities. Cost-effective production of individually designed jeansrequires specialized technology currently available in the US. Vinn will no longer mass-produceJeans.(a)(b)(c)(d)Define the term offshoring.Explain one advantage and one disadvantage for Vinn of using an identical marketingmix globally.Explain one advantage and one disadvantage for Vinn of operating as a publiclimited company.Discuss Vinn’s decisions to re-shore back to the IJS and to produce only individuallydesigned jeans.[2][10]

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